Read book online free The Design of PARAS Microkernel

Read book online free The Design of PARAS Microkernel

Author : Rajkumar Buyya, Associate Professor and Reader of Computer Science and Software Engineering; and Director of the Grid Computing and Distributed Systems (GRIDS) Laboratory at the University of Melbourne, Australia.
Publication Date : June 2000

Excerpts from the Introduction:

Rajkumar Buyya wrote:
From 1995 to 1998, I served as a member of C-DAC, the developer of India's first supercomputer, Operating System Group involved in the research and development of microkernel based operating system, called PARAS, for the C-DAC PARAM series of Supercomputers. A short discussion on PARAS microkernel can be found in our paper: A Microkernel Based Operating System for PARAM 9000. During 1995, I worked on PARAM 8600, an Intel i860 CPU based MPP system, and developed a POSIX-compliant multithreading interface, called PEACE threads, on top of the PARAS microkernel.

In 1997, a large number of developers were working on the development of PARAS microkernel for PARAM 9000, a Sun SPARC based MPP system, I was assigned the task of writing a PARAS microkernel design document. The design document was aimed at acting as a supportive information for software engineers who will be working on the future developmental and enhancement works related to PARAS microkernel. This work resulted in a (unfinished) book having seven chapters when (in 1997) C-DAC favoured the use of Clustering technolgy for the developemet of next generation PARAMs. Thus reducing the demand of building our own microkernel (of course, for this document, I think!) and natuarally our focus has shifted towards building HPCC software environment and tools for a new cluster-based PARAM series of supercomputers called PARAM 10000 (a.k.a, PARAM OpenFrame, a cluster of Sun Ultra workstations connnected throught high-speed and low latency system area networks). I have led the efforts of developing cluster management tools (such as PARMON) for Unix-class cluster-based PARAM 10000 supercomputer. Since the document has not been published anywhere, in 2000, I thought it will be good idea to publish this work as a online ebook, a millennium ePublication!

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Read book online free VMware Server 2.0 Essentials

Read book online free VMware Server 2.0 Essentials

Author : Neil Smyth
Publication Date : November 2008

Santa Very Happy This book was suggested by Neil Smyth

Excerpts from the Preface:

Neil Smyth wrote:
This online book is intended as both a learning resource and reference guide designed to be of use to new and experienced VMware Server users alike. Comprising 20 chapters of detailed information, the book covers a wide range of topics relating to this entry level virtualization solution.

Review (just a bit, OK?):

This book starts with the overview of virtualization and VMware Server 2.0. From there, it will guide the readers on how to set up VMware Server 2.0 on both Linux and Windows platforms and what guest operating systems are officially supported. Then, it will reveal how to create virtual machines and utilize remote console plugins, VMware Tools, scripts and power states.

The second half of this book deals with managing virtual network achitecture, virtual disks and security.

In conclusion, VMware Server 2.0 Essentials gives a nice roadmap to complete virtualization. Beginners will appreciate this book for showing where, what and how to start their way to virtualization. And for those who are not strangers to virtualization, this book fills up holes and shows what virtualization technology truly capable of.

Read book online free VMware Server 2.0 Essentials

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Understanding the Linux Virtual Memory Manager

Understanding the Linux Virtual Memory Manager

Author : Mel Gorman
ISBN : 0131453483
Pages : 768
Publisher : Prentice Hall PTR
Publication Date : April 2004
Free License : Open Publication License, v1.0 or later

Terms and Conditions:

Mel Gorman wrote:
This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, v1.0 or later (the latest version is presently available at

Excerpts from the Preface:

Linux is developed with a stronger practical emphasis than a theoretical one. When new algorithms or changes to existing implementations are suggested, it is common to request code to match the argument. Many of the algorithms used in the Virtual Memory (VM) system were designed by theorists, but the implementations have now diverged considerably from the theory. In part, Linux does follow the traditional development cycle of design to implementation, but changes made in reaction to how the system behaved in the "real world" and intuitive decisions by developers are more common.

This means that the VM performs well in practice. However, very little VM documentation is available except for a few incomplete overviews on a small number of Web sites, except the Web site containing an earlier draft of this book, of course! This lack of documentation has led to the situation where the VM is fully understood only by a small number of core developers. New developers looking for information on how VM functions are generally told to read the source. Little or no information is available on the theoretical basis for the implementation. This requires that even a casual observer invest a large amount of time reading the code and studying the field of Memory Management.

This book gives a detailed tour of the Linux VM as implemented in 2.4.22 and gives a solid introduction of what to expect in 2.6. As well as discussing the implementation, the theory that Linux VM is based on will also be introduced. This is not intended to be a memory management theory book, but understanding why the VM is implemented in a particular fashion is often much simpler if the underlying basis is known in advance.

To complement the description, the appendices include a detailed code com- mentary on a significant percentage of the VM. This should drastically reduce the amount of time a developer or researcher needs to invest in understanding what is happening inside the Linux VM because VM implementations tend to follow similar code patterns even between major versions. This means that, with a solid under- standing of the 2.4 VM, the later 2.5 development VMs and the 2.6 final release will be decipherable in a number of weeks.

The Intended Audience

Anyone interested in how the VM, a core kernel subsystem, works will find answers to many of their questions in this book. The VM, more than any other subsystem, affects the overall performance of the operating system. The VM is also one of the most poorly understood and badly documented subsystems in Linux, partially because there is, quite literally, so much of it. It is very difficult to isolate and understand individual parts of the code without first having a strong conceptual model of the whole VM, so this book intends to give a detailed description of what to expect before going to the source.

This material should be of prime interest to new developers who want to adapt the VM to their needs and to readers who simply would like to know how the VM works. It also will benefit other subsystem developers who want to get the most from the VM when they interact with it and operating systems researchers looking for details on how memory management is implemented in a modern operating system. For others, who just want to learn more about a subsystem that is the focus of so much discussion, they will find an easy-to-read description of the VM functionality that covers all the details without the need to plow through source code.

However, it is assumed that the reader has read at least one general operating system book or one general Linux kernel-orientated book and has a general knowledge of C before tackling this book. Although every effort is made to make the material approachable, some prior knowledge of general operating systems is assumed.

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Read book online free An Operating Systems Vade Mecum, Second Edition

Read book online free An Operating Systems Vade Mecum, Second Edition

Author : Raphael A. Finkel, Computer Science Department, University of Kentucky
Publication Date : 1988

Book Excerpts:

Traditionally, a vade mecum (pronounced "VAHdee MAYkem") is a laboratory manual that guides the student step by step through complex procedures. Operating systems are complex mixtures of policy and mechanism, of algorithm and heuristic, and of theoretical goals and practical experience. This vade mecum tries to unify these diverse points of view and guide the novice step by step through the complexities of the subject. As a text, this book is intended for a first course in operating systems at the undergraduate level. The subject has so many individual parts that its practitioners and teachers often concentrate on subareas and ignore the larger concepts that govern the entire subject. This book has tried to rectify that situation by structuring the presentation about the dual ideas of resource management and beautification.

A course in operating systems is not complete without computer projects. Unfortunately, such exercises require a substantial investment in software. The most successful projects for a first course in operating systems involve implementing parts of an operating system. A complete operating system can be presented to the class, with well-defined modules and interfaces, and the class can be assigned the task of replacing modules with ones of their own design. A less ambitious project has the students first build a simple scheduler for a simulated machine. After it is completed, it can be enhanced by adding virtual memory, transput, and other features. If the necessary software is not available for these assignments, students can be asked to simulate particular policies or algorithms in isolation from a complete operating system. Several exercises in the book give guidelines for this sort of project.

This book will give examples of nuts-and-bolts programming in a high-level language. Most modern operating systems are written in such languages, reserving assembler language for those few aspects that cannot be captured in a higher level language. For the sake of concreteness, this book will present programs in a Modula-like syntax. Modula is closely related to Pascal. The examples are all carefully annotated, so it should be possible to follow them even if student has only a nodding acquaintance with any language in the Algol family, such as Pascal. In most cases, written algorithms are supplemented with pictures.

Intended Audience:

Readers should be able to read this book comfortably if they have had an undergraduate course in data structures and in machine organization. Some sophistication in mathematics (for example, one semester of calculus) would also be helpful but is not required.

Read book online free An Operating Systems Vade Mecum, Second Edition

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Read book online free A Short Introduction to Operating Systems

A Short Introduction to Operating Systems

Author(s) : Mark Burgess
Publication Date : December 2002

Notes Review:

These are the lecture notes of Operating Systems, courtesy of Mark Burgess, a full professor at the Faculty of Engineering of University College Oslo, Norway. As with other lecture notes, these are relatively short (168 pages) for a subject traditionally covered in thick volumes.

The notes cover most of the basic topics of operating systems, many which have only been covered superficially. Nevertheless, readers will find these lecture notes as a decent introduction material that should give them a good grasp on the subject of operating systems.

Topics covered include:
- key concepts, resources and sharing, resource management and spooling
- single task
- multi tasking and multi user
- processes and threads
- memory and storages, physical and virtual
- networks, services and protocols
- security, super users, firewall

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